110.18. English Language Arts and Reading, Grade 6, Beginning with School Year 2009-2010.
(1) The English Language Arts and Reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) are organized into the following strands: Reading, where students read and understand a wide variety of literary and informational texts; Writing, where students compose a variety of written texts with a clear controlling idea, coherent organization, and sufficient detail; Research, where students are expected to know how to locate a range of relevant sources and evaluate, synthesize, and present ideas and information; Listening and Speaking, where students listen and respond to the ideas of others while contributing their own ideas in conversations and in groups; and Oral and Written Conventions, where students learn how to use the oral and written conventions of the English language in speaking and writing. The standards are cumulative–students will continue to address earlier standards as needed while they attend to standards for their grade. In sixth grade, students will engage in activities that build on their prior knowledge and skills in order to strengthen their reading, writing, and oral language skills. Students should read and write on a daily basis.
(2) For students whose first language is not English, the students’ native language serves as a foundation for English language acquisition.
(A) English language learners (ELLs) are acquiring English, learning content in English, and learning to read simultaneously. For this reason, it is imperative that reading instruction should be comprehensive and that students receive instruction in phonemic awareness, phonics, decoding, and word attack skills while simultaneously being taught academic vocabulary and comprehension skills and strategies. Reading instruction that enhances ELL’s ability to decode unfamiliar words and to make sense of those words in context will expedite their ability to make sense of what they read and learn from reading. Additionally, developing fluency, spelling, and grammatical conventions of academic language must be done in meaningful contexts and not in isolation.
(B) For ELLs, comprehension of texts requires additional scaffolds to support comprehensible input. ELL students should use the knowledge of their first language (e.g., cognates) to further vocabulary development. Vocabulary needs to be taught in the context of connected discourse so that language is meaningful. ELLs must learn how rhetorical devices in English differ from those in their native language. At the same time English learners are learning in English, the focus is on academic English, concepts, and the language structures specific to the content.
(C) During initial stages of English development, ELLs are expected to meet standards in a second language that many monolingual English speakers find difficult to meet in their native language. However, English language learners’ abilities to meet these standards will be influenced by their proficiency in English. While English language learners can analyze, synthesize, and evaluate, their level of English proficiency may impede their ability to demonstrate this knowledge during the initial stages of English language acquisition. It is also critical to understand that ELLs with no previous or with interrupted schooling will require explicit and strategic support as they acquire English and learn to learn in English simultaneously.
(3) To meet Public Education Goal 1 of the Texas Education Code, §4.002, which states, “The students in the public education system will demonstrate exemplary performance in the reading and writing of the English language,” students will accomplish the essential knowledge, skills, and student expectations at Grade 6 as described in subsection (b) of this section.
(4) To meet Texas Education Code, §28.002(h), which states, “… each school district shall foster the continuation of the tradition of teaching United States and Texas history and the free enterprise system in regular subject matter and in reading courses and in the adoption of textbooks,” students will be provided oral and written narratives as well as other informational texts that can help them to become thoughtful, active citizens who appreciate the basic democratic values of our state and nation.
(b) Knowledge and skills.
(1) Reading/Fluency. Students read grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. Students are expected to adjust fluency when reading aloud grade-level text based on the reading purpose and the nature of the text.
(2) Reading/Vocabulary Development. Students understand new vocabulary and use it when reading and writing. Students are expected to:
(A) determine the meaning of grade-level academic English words derived from Latin, Greek, or other linguistic roots and affixes;
(B) use context (e.g., cause and effect or compare and contrast organizational text structures) to determine or clarify the meaning of unfamiliar or multiple meaning words;
(C) complete analogies that describe part to whole or whole to part (e.g., ink:pen as page: ____ or pen:ink as book: _____);
(D) explain the meaning of foreign words and phrases commonly used in written English (e.g., RSVP, que sera sera); and
(E) use a dictionary, a glossary, or a thesaurus (printed or electronic) to determine the meanings, syllabication, pronunciations, alternate word choices, and parts of speech of words.
(3) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Theme and Genre. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about theme and genre in different cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:
(A) infer the implicit theme of a work of fiction, distinguishing theme from the topic;
(B) analyze the function of stylistic elements (e.g., magic helper, rule of three) in traditional and classical literature from various cultures; and
(C) compare and contrast the historical and cultural settings of two literary works.
(4) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Poetry. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of poetry and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to explain how figurative language (e.g., personification, metaphors, similes, hyperbole) contributes to the meaning of a poem.
(5) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Drama. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of drama and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to explain the similarities and differences in the setting, characters, and plot of a play and those in a film based upon the same story line.
(6) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Fiction. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of fiction and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:
(A) summarize the elements of plot development (e.g., rising action, turning point, climax, falling action, denouement) in various works of fiction;
(B) recognize dialect and conversational voice and explain how authors use dialect to convey character; and
(C) describe different forms of point-of-view, including first- and third-person.
(7) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Literary Nonfiction. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the varied structural patterns and features of literary nonfiction and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to identify the literary language and devices used in memoirs and personal narratives and compare their characteristics with those of an autobiography.
(8) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Sensory Language. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about how an author’s sensory language creates imagery in literary text and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to explain how authors create meaning through stylistic elements and figurative language emphasizing the use of personification, hyperbole, and refrains.
(9) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Culture and History. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about the author’s purpose in cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students are expected to compare and contrast the stated or implied purposes of different authors writing on the same topic.
(10) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Expository Text. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about expository text and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:
(A) summarize the main ideas and supporting details in text, demonstrating an understanding that a summary does not include opinions;
(B) explain whether facts included in an argument are used for or against an issue;
(C) explain how different organizational patterns (e.g., proposition-and-support, problem-and-solution) develop the main idea and the author’s viewpoint; and
(D) synthesize and make logical connections between ideas within a text and across two or three texts representing similar or different genres.
(11) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Persuasive Text. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about persuasive text and provide evidence from text to support their analysis. Students are expected to:
(A) compare and contrast the structure and viewpoints of two different authors writing for the same purpose, noting the stated claim and supporting evidence; and
(B) identify simply faulty reasoning used in persuasive texts.
(12) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Procedural Texts. Students understand how to glean and use information in procedural texts and documents. Students are expected to:
(A) follow multi-tasked instructions to complete a task, solve a problem, or perform procedures; and
(B) interpret factual, quantitative, or technical information presented in maps, charts, illustrations, graphs, timelines, tables, and diagrams.
(13) Reading/Media Literacy. Students use comprehension skills to analyze how words, images, graphics, and sounds work together in various forms to impact meaning. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth in increasingly more complex texts. Students are expected to:
(A) explain messages conveyed in various forms of media;
(B) recognize how various techniques influence viewers’ emotions;
(C) critique persuasive techniques (e.g., testimonials, bandwagon appeal) used in media messages; and
(D) analyze various digital media venues for levels of formality and informality.
(14) Writing/Writing Process. Students use elements of the writing process (planning, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing) to compose text. Students are expected to:
(A) plan a first draft by selecting a genre appropriate for conveying the intended meaning to an audience, determining appropriate topics through a range of strategies (e.g., discussion, background reading, personal interests, interviews), and developing a thesis or controlling idea;
(B) develop drafts by choosing an appropriate organizational strategy (e.g., sequence of events, cause-effect, compare-contrast) and building on ideas to create a focused, organized, and coherent piece of writing;
(C) revise drafts to clarify meaning, enhance style, include simple and compound sentences, and improve transitions by adding, deleting, combining, and rearranging sentences or larger units of text after rethinking how well questions of purpose, audience, and genre have been addressed;
(D) edit drafts for grammar, mechanics, and spelling; and
(E) revise final draft in response to feedback from peers and teacher and publish written work for appropriate audiences.
(15) Writing/Literary Texts. Students write literary texts to express their ideas and feelings about real or imagined people, events, and ideas. Students are expected to:
(A) write imaginative stories that include:
(i) a clearly defined focus, plot, and point of view;
(ii) a specific, believable setting created through the use of sensory details; and
(iii) dialogue that develops the story; and
(B) write poems using:
(i) poetic techniques (e.g., alliteration, onomatopoeia);
(ii) figurative language (e.g., similes, metaphors); and
(iii) graphic elements (e.g., capital letters, line length).
(16) Writing. Students write about their own experiences. Students are expected to write a personal narrative that has a clearly defined focus and communicates the importance of or reasons for actions and/or consequences.
(17) Writing/Expository and Procedural Texts. Students write expository and procedural or work-related texts to communicate ideas and information to specific audiences for specific purposes. Students are expected to:
(A) create multi-paragraph essays to convey information about a topic that:
(i) present effective introductions and concluding paragraphs;
(ii) guide and inform the reader’s understanding of key ideas and evidence;
(iii) include specific facts, details, and examples in an appropriately organized structure; and
(iv) use a variety of sentence structures and transitions to link paragraphs;
(B) write informal letters that convey ideas, include important information, demonstrate a sense of closure, and use appropriate conventions (e.g., date, salutation, closing);
(C) write responses to literary or expository texts and provide evidence from the text to demonstrate understanding; and
(D) produce a multimedia presentation involving text and graphics using available technology.
(18) Writing/Persuasive Texts. Students write persuasive texts to influence the attitudes or actions of a specific audience on specific issues. Students are expected to write persuasive essays for appropriate audiences that establish a position and include sound reasoning, detailed and relevant evidence, and consideration of alternatives.
(19) Oral and Written Conventions/Conventions. Students understand the function of and use the conventions of academic language when speaking and writing. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:
(A) use and understand the function of the following parts of speech in the context of reading, writing, and speaking:
(i) verbs (irregular verbs and active and passive voice);
(ii) non-count nouns (e.g., rice, paper);
(iii) predicate adjectives (She is intelligent.) and their comparative and superlative forms (e.g., many, more, most);
(iv) conjunctive adverbs (e.g., consequently, furthermore, indeed);
(v) prepositions and prepositional phrases to convey location, time, direction, or to provide details;
(vi) indefinite pronouns (e.g., all, both, nothing, anything);
(vii) subordinating conjunctions (e.g., while, because, although, if); and
(viii) transitional words and phrases that demonstrate an understanding of the function of the transition related to the organization of the writing (e.g., on the contrary, in addition to);
(B) differentiate between the active and passive voice and know how to use them both; and
(C) use complete simple and compound sentences with correct subject-verb agreement.
(20) Oral and Written Conventions/Handwriting, Capitalization, and Punctuation. Students write legibly and use appropriate capitalization and punctuation conventions in their compositions. Students are expected to:
(A) use capitalization for:
(ii) initials and acronyms; and
(B) recognize and use punctuation marks including:
(i) commas in compound sentences;
(ii) proper punctuation and spacing for quotations; and
(iii) parentheses, brackets, and ellipses (to indicate omissions and interruptions or incomplete statements); and
(C) use proper mechanics including italics and underlining for titles of books.
(21) Oral and Written Conventions/Spelling. Students spell correctly. Students are expected to:
(A) differentiate between commonly confused terms (e.g., its, it’s; affect, effect);
(B) use spelling patterns and rules and print and electronic resources to determine and check correct spellings; and
(C) know how to use the spell-check function in word processing while understanding its limitations.
(22) Research/Research Plan. Students ask open-ended research questions and develop a plan for answering them. Students are expected to:
(A) brainstorm, consult with others, decide upon a topic, and formulate open-ended questions to address the major research topic; and
(B) generate a research plan for gathering relevant information about the major research question.
(23) Research/Gathering Sources. Students determine, locate, and explore the full range of relevant sources addressing a research question and systematically record the information they gather. Students are expected to:
(A) follow the research plan to collect data from a range of print and electronic resources (e.g., reference texts, periodicals, web pages, online sources) and data from experts;
(B) differentiate between primary and secondary sources;
(C) record data, utilizing available technology (e.g., word processors) in order to see the relationships between ideas, and convert graphic/visual data (e.g., charts, diagrams, timelines) into written notes;
(D) identify the source of notes (e.g., author, title, page number) and record bibliographic information concerning those sources according to a standard format; and
(E) differentiate between paraphrasing and plagiarism and identify the importance of citing valid and reliable sources.
(24) Research/Synthesizing Information. Students clarify research questions and evaluate and synthesize collected information. Students are expected to:
(A) refine the major research question, if necessary, guided by the answers to a secondary set of questions; and
(B) evaluate the relevance and reliability of sources for the research.
(25) Research/Organizing and Presenting Ideas. Students organize and present their ideas and information according to the purpose of the research and their audience. Students are expected to synthesize the research into a written or an oral presentation that:
(A) compiles important information from multiple sources;
(B) develops a topic sentence, summarizes findings, and uses evidence to support conclusions;
(C) presents the findings in a consistent format; and
(D) uses quotations to support ideas and an appropriate form of documentation to acknowledge sources (e.g., bibliography, works cited).
(26) Listening and Speaking/Listening. Students will use comprehension skills to listen attentively to others in formal and informal settings. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:
(A) listen to and interpret a speaker’s messages (both verbal and nonverbal) and ask questions to clarify the speaker’s purpose and perspective;
(B) follow and give oral instructions that include multiple action steps; and
(C) paraphrase the major ideas and supporting evidence in formal and informal presentations.
(27) Listening and Speaking/Speaking. Students speak clearly and to the point, using the conventions of language. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to give an organized presentation with a specific point of view, employing eye contact, speaking rate, volume, enunciation, natural gestures, and conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively.
(28) Listening and Speaking/Teamwork. Students work productively with others in teams. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to participate in student-led discussions by eliciting and considering suggestions from other group members and by identifying points of agreement and disagreement.
Source: The provisions of this §110.18 adopted to be effective September 4, 2008, 33 TexReg 7162.